We found a pattern of isolation by distance, which dating website student of interpret as being the result of historical colonization events. We propose the existence of at least one glacial refugium in the SE of the Iberian Peninsula. Our findings challenge predictions of the Monopolization hypothesis, since coexistence i. secondary contact of divergent lineages dating website student of some ponds in the Iberian Peninsula is common.
Our results indicate that phylogeographic dating website student of in small organisms can be very complex and that gene flow between diverse lineages after population establishment can indeed occur.
The ability of some animal taxa e. nematodes, rotifers, and tardigrades to enter an ametabolic cryptobiotic state is well known. Nevertheless, the phenotypic factors affecting successful anhydrobiosis have rarely been investigated. We report a laboratory study on the effects of body size, reproductive condition, and energetic condition on anhydrobiotic survival in a population of the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer.
Large tardigrades had a lower probability of survival than medium sized tardigrades and showed a positive response in survival to energetic condition. This suggests that energy constrained the possibility for large tardigrades to enter and to leave anhydrobiosis. As a possible alternative explanation for low survival in the largest specimens we discuss the expression of senescence.